Modern Renewable Energy Sources

The concept of renewable energy and of “renewableness” in general, came to fame in the 1970s, in an attempt to offset the development of nuclear energy and fossil fuel. The most common definition is the energy source that can be quickly restored back naturally, and the process is ongoing. With this definition, nuclear and fossil fuels are not included in it.

Geothermal energy comes from radioactive decay in the center of the Earth, making the Earth heat from within, and from the hot summer sun that heats the surface of the earth up. There are three ways of utilization of geothermal energy:

  1.     As the power plant and is used in the form of electricity
  2.     Utilized as a heat source directly using the pipe into the ground
  3.     As the heat pump is pumped directly from the ground

The term ‘geothermal’ is used to name heat energy derived from the earth. Geothermal electricity is generated by utilizing the steam coming out of the pipe put into the ground as a result of heating water infiltration around the geothermal wells. The vapor is then used directly to spin turbines or to heat the heat exchanger to generate pressure, then used to turn turbines and generate electricity through a generator.

Modern Renewable Energy

Geothermal energy from the core of the Earth is closer to the surface in some areas than others. Where steam or underground water can be harnessed and brought to the surface it can be used to generate electricity. Such geothermal power sources exist in some geologically unstable parts of the world such as Iceland, New Zealand, the United States, the Philippines and Italy. The two most prominent areas for this in the United States are in Yellowstone basin and in northern California. Iceland produced 170 MW geothermal power and heated 86% of all houses in the year 2000 through geothermal energy. Some 8,000 MW of operational capacity total.

Geothermal heat from the Earth’s surface can be used in most of the world directly to heat and cool the building. Crust temperature a few feet below the surface is buffered to a constant 7-14°C (45-58°F), so that the fluid can be pre-heated or pre-cooled in underground pipes, providing free cooling in summer and, via a heat pump, heating winter. Another direct use is in agriculture (greenhouses), and aquaculture industries.

Although geothermal sites are capable of providing heat for many decades, eventually specific locations quiet. Some interpret this as meaning a specific geothermal location can undergo depletion. Others see such an interpretation as inaccurate use of the world because the overall thinning supply of geothermal energy in the earth, and its source, remains almost constant. The truth is that geothermal energy depends on the local geological instability, which, by definition, is unpredictable, and may be unstable.

Now Geothermal energy consumption does not in any way threaten or diminish the quality of life, consequently, it is considered a renewable energy source.

Waste Vegetable Oil: Cheap Raw Materials Bioplastics

Bioplastics which is naturally synthesized by microbes can be made into commercial use waste vegetable oil as a starting material (starter). This will reduce environmental contamination and also provides a high quality plastic that is suitable for medical implants, according to scientists presenting their research findings at the Society for General Microbiology’s Autumn Conference at the University of Warwick.

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA – family polyster) were synthesized by a variety of bacteria as a source of energy as much carbon stocks. Poly3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is the most widely produced polymer PHA family. Currently, bioplastics growing bacteria in a fermenter large amounts need not cost less because glucose is used as a starter.

Research conducted by a team of researchers at the University of Wolverhampton recommend using waste vegetable oil as a starting material to reduce the production cost of plastic. “Bioplastic-producing bacteria, Ralstonia eutropa H16, grow better on oil for more than 48 hours and therefore produce three times more PHB than when the bacteria are grown in glucose,” explained Victor Irorere who conducted the study. “Electrospinning experiments carried out in collaboration with researchers from the University of Birmingham, showed that the nano-fiber plastics are produced from oil berkristal too little, which means the plastic is suitable for medical applications.

Previous studies have shown that PHB is an attractive polymer for use as microcapsules for effective delivery of therapeutic drugs and medical implants, due to the nature biodegrabilitas and non-toxic. PHB quality improvement combined with low production costs will allow PHB used more widely.

Waste plastics used – mostly non-biodegradable is a major environmental issue, the plastic waste in the UK coast have risen over the past two decades and now accounts for about 60% of marine debris. “The use of biodegradable plastics such as PHB encourage reducing environmental contamination. Unfortunately, the cost of glucose as the starting material has been hampered by the commercialization of bioplastics, but also reduces the environmental contamination caused by waste vegetable oil. “

Solid Waste Processing Agro-industries with Environmentally Friendly Technology

Agro-industrial solid waste, biomass is a renewable material that is rich in organic material and available in large quantities. The biomass accumulation, if not handled carefully would have a negative impact on the environment. In addition to the loss of opportunities for renewable materials has the potential to produce products that have added value. Biomass agro-industrial waste contains a variety of organic materials such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, oils, etc. which in general can be used to produce value-added products in the technology when appropriate.

Biotechnology approaches for utilizing agro-industrial wastes offer a viable alternative to process waste products as a source of power to produce a wide range of valuable recycled products, including fuels as a source of renewable energy, animal feed, organic fertilizer, and even base materials for pharmaceutical products.

In this training, will be presented the latest information on biotechnological approaches for the utilization of biomass waste into agro-industrial recycled products that have added value that will motivate others to do the recycling efforts of agro-industrial waste that will provide many benefits in the effort reducing waste disposal to the environment, it will also create new products that benefit economically.


In general, the training aims to increase knowledge and skills of participants in maximizing the use of agro-industrial waste. Thus, at the end of the training, participants are expected to:

  1.     Understanding the character of the various types of agro-industrial wastes
  2.     Increase knowledge about the use or recycle agro-industrial waste with environmentally friendly technology
  3.     Know a practical technology for utilizing agro-industrial waste, so it can be in practice later in the day
  4.     Know a business opportunity recycling agro-industrial wastes to produce products that have added value